Popes and Cardinals often lived more like kings than spiritual leaders.
For example, Baptist is currently the largest denomination in the United States but there are many dozens more. Today, we call this "Roman Catholic" because there are so many other types of churches (for example, Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican - you get the idea).
They commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and, sometimes, even waged war.
Simony (the selling of Church offices) and nepotism (favoritism based on family relationships) were rampant.
The Christian view of history is a vision and interpretation of time in terms of eternity and of human events in the light of divine revelation.
Christianity is the dynamic element in the history of our Western culture.
However, Luther's major departures from Roman Catholic doctrine were based on these beliefs: Baptism - Although Luther retained that baptism was necessary for spiritual regeneration, no specific form was stipulated.